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Ø  it is a preventable cancer.

Ø  a known etiology, a hpv ( human papilloma virus)

Ø  a known mode of spread i.e sexually transmitted

Ø  a very good and inexpensive screening test called pap smear which identifies it several years ahead at a precancerous stage making it amenable to prevention and early treatment with good prognosis.

Ø  an effective vaccine

Ø  unlike other stis (sexually transmitted infections) it is not fully protected by condoms.

we live in an era of sexual liberalisation with far reaching consequences. stis are a rising concern, with long term consequences. hiv is just the tip of iceberg.

the high risk factors are those with

-        multiple sex partners

-        early initiation of sexual activity

-        poor knowledge of contraception

-        hesitation in using barrier method by male partners

-        low socio-economic status with poor access to health care services, including pap tests

-        prostitutes, prison inmates,  drug addicts, those attending sti clinics

-        smoking, low immunity status like hiv, use of birth control pills for > 5 years, being younger than 17 at the time of first delivery, multiparity i.e having 3 or more children.

even the first wife dying of a cervical cancer placed the second wife at high risk.

yet despite the familiarity with the disease, it continues to flourish especially in developing countries. most of those who suffered rarely made to the hospital in time. educated women, even doctors hardly turned up for their pap smear in time. may be it was a feminine trait, being indifferent to their own health.

an effective vaccine lay underutilised because of unawareness and sometimes non affordability.

a  report published by the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) tells,

       young people aged 15-24 years develop half of all new sexually transmitted infections (stis),

       1 in 4 sexually active adolescent females has an sti

no wonder the lower limit of giving hpv vaccine, that acts best when given before the sexual debut has been brought down to 9 years of age; a definite sign of society’s paradigm

“this epidemic is one result of a sexually saturated culture and the myth perpetuated by academe, medicine and pharmaceutical companies that latex, contraception and  vaccines can make all sexual behavior risk free.” 

even among prime-time network television shows, there is only 1 portrayal of protective behavior or comment regarding stis for every 25 instances of sexual behavior shown.

sadly one-quarter of adolescents and young adults in high-risk age groups for stis did not have health care coverage.

only 11 percent of teenagers surveyed reported getting most of their information regarding stis from their parents or other family members.

knowledge and awareness of stis among the public is poor; almost two-thirds of women,18-60 years of age surveyed knew nothing or very little about stis other than aids.

young women and female adolescents are more susceptible to stis compared to their male counterparts because of their biological characteristics. during puberty and young adulthood, specific cells (columnar epithelium) are especially sensitive to invasion by certain sexually transmitted organisms are more exposed.

women and female adolescents may also find it more difficult than men to implement protective behaviors, partly because of the power imbalance between men and women

the only way to curb the rising epidemic was by :

  • inculcating responsible behaviour

sounds like a cliché but if you don’t take a detailed sexual history of your partner on your date, you don’t know him well enough to have sex.

and ‘safe sex’ is sex with your faithful spouse!  

  • encourage use of contraception ( barrier method )

§  enforcing pap smear in sexually active women ( 21-65 years) at least every 3 year( even in those previously vaccinated with hpv vaccine), or combining it with hpv testing every 5 years ( >30 years of age).

“screen-and-treat” and “screen, diagnose and treat” are both valuable approaches

 

  • promoting cervical cancer vaccine; may be a government initiative making the vaccine cost effective, mandatory or even free to all adolescent girls.
  • health education
  • tracing contact/ partner & treatment  for stis , wherever possiblecancer cervix is the leading cancer in indian women and the second most common worldwide. the precancerous changes start early, usually in the twenties, once the women is sexually active and if undetected and untreated  may turn into a full blown cancer by the time the woman is in her 50s.

    ironically, there are several good things about this cancer.

    Ø  it is a preventable cancer.

    Ø  a known etiology, a hpv ( human papilloma virus)

    Ø  a known mode of spread i.e sexually transmitted

    Ø  a very good and inexpensive screening test called pap smear which identifies it several years ahead at a precancerous stage making it amenable to prevention and early treatment with good prognosis.

    Ø  an effective vaccine

    Ø  unlike other stis (sexually transmitted infections) it is not fully protected by condoms.

    we live in an era of sexual liberalisation with far reaching consequences. stis are a rising concern, with long term consequences. hiv is just the tip of iceberg.

    the high risk factors are those with

    -        multiple sex partners

    -        early initiation of sexual activity

    -        poor knowledge of contraception

    -        hesitation in using barrier method by male partners

    -        low socio-economic status with poor access to health care services, including pap tests

    -        prostitutes, prison inmates,  drug addicts, those attending sti clinics

    -        smoking, low immunity status like hiv, use of birth control pills for > 5 years, being younger than 17 at the time of first delivery, multiparity i.e having 3 or more children.

    even the first wife dying of a cervical cancer placed the second wife at high risk.

    yet despite the familiarity with the disease, it continues to flourish especially in developing countries. most of those who suffered rarely made to the hospital in time. educated women, even doctors hardly turned up for their pap smear in time. may be it was a feminine trait, being indifferent to their own health.

    an effective vaccine lay underutilised because of unawareness and sometimes non affordability.

    a  report published by the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) tells,

           young people aged 15-24 years develop half of all new sexually transmitted infections (stis),

           1 in 4 sexually active adolescent females has an sti

    no wonder the lower limit of giving hpv vaccine, that acts best when given before the sexual debut has been brought down to 9 years of age; a definite sign of society’s paradigm

    “this epidemic is one result of a sexually saturated culture and the myth perpetuated by academe, medicine and pharmaceutical companies that latex, contraception and  vaccines can make all sexual behavior risk free.” 

    even among prime-time network television shows, there is only 1 portrayal of protective behavior or comment regarding stis for every 25 instances of sexual behavior shown.

    sadly one-quarter of adolescents and young adults in high-risk age groups for stis did not have health care coverage.

    only 11 percent of teenagers surveyed reported getting most of their information regarding stis from their parents or other family members.

    knowledge and awareness of stis among the public is poor; almost two-thirds of women,18-60 years of age surveyed knew nothing or very little about stis other than aids.

    young women and female adolescents are more susceptible to stis compared to their male counterparts because of their biological characteristics. during puberty and young adulthood, specific cells (columnar epithelium) are especially sensitive to invasion by certain sexually transmitted organisms are more exposed.

    women and female adolescents may also find it more difficult than men to implement protective behaviors, partly because of the power imbalance between men and women

    the only way to curb the rising epidemic was by :

    • inculcating responsible behaviour

    sounds like a cliché but if you don’t take a detailed sexual history of your partner on your date, you don’t know him well enough to have sex.

    and ‘safe sex’ is sex with your faithful spouse!  

    • encourage use of contraception ( barrier method )

    §  enforcing pap smear in sexually active women ( 21-65 years) at least every 3 year( even in those previously vaccinated with hpv vaccine), or combining it with hpv testing every 5 years ( >30 years of age).

    “screen-and-treat” and “screen, diagnose and treat” are both valuable approaches

     

    • promoting cervical cancer vaccine; may be a government initiative making the vaccine cost effective, mandatory or even free to all adolescent girls.
    • health education
    • tracing contact/ partner & treatment  for stis , wherever possible
  • how age affects fertility in women

  • I have a problem in heart.heart is burning and centre chest is burning and back of the chest pain and acidity also for the last 3 weeks heart murmuring also why
  • hi my wife facing allergy for last 1 month she have red spots all over in skin after taking allergic medicines it not gone instead day by day increase after medicine consumption today she has taken ojen 02 tab & tab prutrip 25 but still have heavy reaction on his mouth also...

  •   Dr. Madhu Shree , Dentist
  •   Dr. Yashodhara Mhatre , Reproductive Medicine Specialist
  •   Dr. Nisarga Kansar , Pediatric Dentist
  •   Dr. Radha krishan khatri Khatri , Ophthalmologist
  •   Dr. Mitali Gupta , Nutritionist Dietician
  •   Tirupati Medical Centre, Faizabad
  •   Mukta Dental Clinic, Bombuflat
  •   Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad
  •   Priti Hospital, Allahabad
  •   Raj Hospital, Kanpur
  • -->

    Stress & Acne

    Balchandra
    HAVING STRESS: Lesser the better if you have acne Do you think our youth is under lot of stress? The answer is surely an emphatic YES. So the question is, does stress cause acne or is acne causing stress? Well stress is definitely related to acne. Infact an interesting survey was conducted by Stanford University comparing pimple popping during exams & non-exam period. They concluded that there were more pimple breakouts in college students during period nearing for exams, as compared to non exam periods. This gives us a clear hint that there is surely a link. Does Stress really cause Acne? Many Scientists and doctors have long speculated that stress and acne are linked. Exact reasons are yet to be found out. In our inner lining of our skin there are millions of cells which produce oil (sebum). Sebum actually doesn’t allow fungal infections to occur, keeps skin moisturize & avoids wrinkles but its gifted with one special thing receptors for stress hormones (reported by National Center for Biotechnology Information). One such stress hormne is cortisol produce by brain only when we take too much of stress. Surprisingly there is one micro organism known as P.acne which loves oil and it thrives on the skin. The moment one takes stress,it causes release of cortisol thereby triggering oil production on face and ready food for P.acne (micro-organism). Today world is getting more & more polluted, there is dust everywhere, every second upper lining of skin dies new one takes place which causes skin pores to block & proliferation of P.acne, resulting in acne Molecular biology research has also conducted any experiments finding link between stress and acne. Research has concluded that oil producing cells have many neuroendocrine mediators which help trigger oil production under skin. Example corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide, β-endorphin, vasoactive polypeptide, melanocortins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. After binding with ligands, these receptors promote & regulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, proliferation, differentiation, lipogenesis and androgen metabolism in sebocytes. By means of their endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine actions, these neuroendocrine factors topically and centrally induced stress towards oil (sebaceous) glands, eventually affecting the clinical course of acne or pimples. Stress can be reduced by Exercising Doing yoga regularly Drinking at least 4-5 liters of water Preparing yourselves well in advance Eat right food on time Sleeping at least 8hrs in night Talking about stress to your parents & friends Less Stress will lead to Less Acne should be our motto.

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