Blindness is a potential complication if you have diabetes or have a stroke. Birth defects, eye injuries, and complications from eye surgery are other common causes of blindness.
Causes of Blindness in Infants
The following conditions can impair vision or cause blindness in infants:
A principal risk factor for blindness is living in a third-world nation without ready access to modern medical care. Other risk factors include poor prenatal care, premature birth, advancing age, poor nutrition, failing to wear safety glasses when indicated, poor hygiene, smoking, a family history of blindness, the presence of various ocular diseases and the existence of medical conditions including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease.
If you’re completely blind, you can see nothing. If you’re partially blind, you might experience the following symptoms:
Symptoms of Blindness in Infants
Your child’s visual system begins to develop in the womb, but it won’t be fully formed until about 2 years of age. By 6 to 8 weeks of age, your baby should be able to fix their gaze on an object and follow its movement. By 4 months of age, their eyes should be properly aligned and not turned inward or outward.
The symptoms of visual impairment in young children can include:
Blindness is diagnosed by testing each eye individually and by measuring the visual acuity and the visual field, or peripheral vision. People may have blindness in one (unilateral blindness) or both eyes (bilateral blindness). Historical information regarding the blindness can be helpful in diagnosing the cause of blindness. Poor vision that is sudden in onset differs in potential causes than blindness that is progressive or chronic. Temporary blindness differs in cause from permanent blindness. The cause of blindness is made by a thorough examination by an ophthalmologist.
In some cases of vision impairment, one or more of the following may help to restore your vision:
If you experience partial blindness that can’t be corrected, your doctor will provide guidance on how to function with limited vision. For example, you can use a magnifying glass to read, increase the text size on your computer, and use audio clocks and audiobooks.
Complete blindness requires approaching life in a new way and learning new skills. For example, you may need to learn how to:
You may also need to have handrails installed in your
Blindness is preventable through a combination of education and access to good medical care. Most traumatic causes of blindness can be prevented through eye protection. Nutritional causes of blindness are preventable through proper diet. Most cases of blindness from glaucoma are preventable through early detection and appropriate treatment. Visual impairment and blindness caused by infectious diseases have been greatly reduced through international public-health measures.
The majority of blindness from diabetic retinopathy is preventable through careful control of blood-sugar levels, exercise, avoidance of obesity and smoking, and emphasis on eating foods that do not increase the sugar load (complex, rather than simple carbohydrates). There has been an increase in the number of people who are blind or visually impaired from conditions that are a result of living longer. As the world's population achieves greater longevity, there will also be more blindness from diseases such as macular degeneration. However, these diseases are so common that research and treatment are constantly evolving. Regular eye examinations may often uncover a potentially blinding illness that can then be treated before there is any visual loss.
There is ongoing research regarding gene therapy for certain patients with inheritable diseases such as Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa. Improvements in diagnosis and prevention of retinopathy of prematurity, a potentially blinding illness seen in premature babies, have made it an avoidable cause of blindness today.
Patients who have untreatable blindness need tools and help to reorganize their habits and the way in which they perform their everyday tasks. Organizations, such as the Braille Institute, offer helpful resources and support for people with blindness and for their families. Visual aids, text-reading software, and Braille books are available, together with many simple and complex technologies to assist people with severely compromised vision in functioning more effectively. In the United States and most other developed nations, financial assistance through various agencies can pay for the training and support necessary to allow a blind person to function.
John Milton and Helen Keller are well known for their
accomplishments in life despite being blind. There are countless other unnamed
individuals with blindness, however, who, despite significant visual handicaps,
have had full lives and enriched the lives of those who have interacted with